Some naive questions about u-boot for MPC85xx, the definition of
some macro in ppc_asm.tmpl. Can anyone there explain them to me please?
1) In GET_GOT(x) what does " lwz r0,0b-1b(r14) ;" do? what
#define GET_GOT \
bl 1f ; \2) In START_GOT, any special meaning for the value 32768?
.text 2 ; \
0: .long .LCTOC1-1f ; \
.text ; \
1: mflr r14 ; \
lwz r0,0b-1b(r14) ; \
add r14,r0,r14 ;
3) Syntax for GOT_ENTRY(NAME) and GOT(NAME),
like . - .LCTOC1 (line 57) and .text 2 (line
Thanks for the help!!
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On Aug 28, 2006, at 8:54 PM, enorm wrote:
> Some naive questions about u-boot for MPC85xx, the definition of
> some macro in ppc_asm.tmpl. Can anyone there explain them to me
> 1) In GET_GOT(x) what does " lwz r0,0b-1b(r14) ;" do? what does
> "0b-1b" stands for, or the meaning of the syntax? why move the content
> of the memory pointing by LR?
0b and 1b refer to the labels 0: and 1:. The "b" means find the
first instance of that label backward from the reference point.
> #define GET_GOT \
> bl 1f ; \
> .text 2 ; \
> 0: .long .LCTOC1-1f ; \
> .text ; \
> 1: mflr r14 ; \
> lwz r0,0b-1b(r14) ; \
> add r14,r0,r14 ;
One thing to note when looking at this code that might be confusing:
The .text 2 directive says that the code after it should be put in
subsection "2" of the .text section. The default is 0 if this is not
specified. When you build, this code is no longer sequential -
the .text 2 stuff will end up somewhere in the executable *after* the
To illustrate, here's what you get if you compile just this code and
dump it (I just #defined .LCTOC1 to be 0x1000 so it would compile):
0: 48 00 00 05 bl 0x4
4: 7d c8 02 a6 mflr r14 << label 1: points here
8: 80 0e 00 0c lwz r0,12(r14)
c: 7d c0 72 14 add r14,r0,r14
10: 00 00 10 0c .long 0x100c << label 0: points here
And what it does, line by line:
bl 0x4 /* LR now contains actual address we're running at */
mflr r14 /* copy LR into r14 so we can use it */
lwz r0,12(r14) /* Get the linker-generated value .LCTOC1-1f */
add r14,r0,r14 /* Correct that value for where we're really
The whole point here is to be somewhat position-independent - we're
calculating where things are rather than using the linker-generated
values because we don't necessarily want to assume we're loaded and
running at the link address.
> 2) In START_GOT, any special meaning for the value 32768?
> >> .LCTOC1=.+32768
So, I don't have the code for this, but if I had to guess..... That
value is equivalent to 0x8000 hex. The GOT is usually accessed using
a symbol that's in the middle of the GOT so you can use positive and
negative indexes from that point to access data in the GOT. The max
size of an immediate value in ppc asm is 16 bits. So this is the
halfway point that gives you maximum access with a 16-bit immediate.
> 3) Syntax for GOT_ENTRY(NAME) and GOT(NAME), like . - .LCTOC1
> (line 57) and .text 2 (line 50)
> could not find then in the GNU douments (ld, as, gcc, glibc etc).
Most everything you need is in the gas manual at http://www.gnu.org/
software/binutils/manual/gas-2.9.1/html_mono/as.html. and in the C
preprocessor documentation at http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/
gcc-2.95.3/cpp.html#SEC_Top. If you're really interested in
understanding this stuff, you should probably also dig up and read
the PowerPC Processor ABI Supplement document as well.
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